Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Saturday, February 23, 2008

AP Government-Chap 3-Key Terms-

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) : Defined commerce powers broadly to encompass every form of commercial activity for the government to regulate
Intergovernmental relations : Representatives working in D.C. for certain interest groups or parties
Privileges and immunities clause : "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privilages or immunities of citizens of the United States. " Written by John Bingham
Extradition : The returning of person who commited a crime in another state to that state
Charles Beard : Re-evaluted the founding fatehrs of the United States. Proposed that the Constitution was written to protect the wealthy and had a main goal of economics.
Alexander Hamilton : He created the Federalist party. He had industrial, urban, and financial goals for the United Sates.
James Madison : Wrote "The Federalist Papers" to puch the ratifacation of the Constitution.
Decentralized politics : gives citizens and elected officials more power in public decision making

The Slaughterhouse Cases : Resulted in the ruling that state and national citizenship were not the same thing and privilages and immunities of citizenship of the U.S. were protected, but not for state citizenship
Grants-in-aid : There are four kinds of grants; Categorical, Formula, Project, and Block. The block has the least amount of restrictions while categorical has the mort amount of restrictions on the spending of the grants.

AP Government-Chap 3-Module 2-

Cooperative Federalism

  • Government that consisting of multiple layers
  • Dual Federalism: State, county, and municipal government are separate entities bound by federal government
    • Grew until Great Depression
      • Roosevelt created New Deal Legislation to help depression
        • Created Cooperative Federalism:
          • Shared responsibilities and policies
          • Shared costs and programs and administrative roles
        • 14th amendment: shifted presidential toward national supervision of the states

    Fiscal Federalism

  • National government provides grants and funing to states
    • Originated from confederation period to fund farmer education
    • Now covers public housing, urban development, and school lunches
    • Refusing regulations will cause government to take away funding which will hurt sate
    • Grants:
      • Categorical:
        • Heavily regulated
      • Formula:
        • Defined rules
      • Project:
        • Creates competition
      • Block:
        • Few restrictions
    • Conditions and Aid:
      • Difficult to meet
    • Devolution:
      • Concept of scaling back the size and activities of the national government and giving more control over domestic programs to the states
      • Extends to local governments and even to non-profit groups through second or third order devolution

    Terms to Know

  • Black Grants: Given to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services. Relatively few restrictions
  • Categorical Grants: Federal grants used for specific purposes or areas of state and local spending. Many regulations
  • Cooperative Federalism: System of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government.
  • Devolution: Scaling back of the size and activities of the national government
  • Dual Federalism: A system of government where the national government and state governments have distinct realms of authority that do not overlap
  • Fiscal Federalism: The model of spending, taxing, and providing, grants in the federal system
  • Formula Grants: Federal categorical grants distributed according to a defined set of rules specified in legislation or in administrative regulations
  • 14th Amendment: "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States
  • Marble Cake Federalism: Cooperative federalism, where government share responsibilities
  • Project grants: Awarded to states for specific purposes and given on the basis of the merits of applications
  • Revenue-Sharing Program: A form of federal aid in which a pool of federal tax collections is given to the states as "shared money" with no restrictions
  • Unfunded Mandates: Under-funded legislation pass by Congress.

Friday, February 22, 2008

AP Government - Does the Consititution Really Say That?

Okay, I once again am really late for this, but just in case someone really needs it, here's the work for the Constitution assignment:

The Constitution of 1787 is represented in the Appendix on page 703 of Government in America textbook, starting with the Preamble. You may also use a pocket Constitution. As you read, ask yourself if the Constitution follows through on the promises advertised in the Preamble. More specifically, see if you can locate the exact language (what Article and what section?) the writers of the Constitution used to express their solutions to such problems as….

1. Representation [exactly who is going to represent the people?]

Article I, Section 2: "The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States..."
"Representatives and and direct [Taxes] shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Number..."

Article I, Section 3: "The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state [chosen by the Legislature thereof], for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote."

Article II, Section 1: "The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States."
"Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may entitled in Congress, bu tno Senator or Representative...shall be appointed Elector."

2. Slavery

Article I, Section 2: "...according to their respective Number [which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those not bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons]."

Article IV, Section 2: "[No Person held to Service or Labour in one State under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence os any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.]"

3. Making changes to the Constitution in the future

Article V, Section 1 (though technically unnumbered): "The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution..."
"...[the Amendments] shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the severeal States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof..."
"...Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no state, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate."

4. Protecting JUSTICE [avoiding too much democracy]

Article III, Section 1: "The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish."

Article III, Section 2: "The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases..."

Article IV, Section 4: "The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion, and on Application of Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic violence."

Article IV, Section 2: "A person charged in any State with Reason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up to be removed to the state having Jurisdiction of the Crime."

5. Protecting LIBERTY [avoiding tyranny]

Article I, Section 3: "The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation."
"Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, trust or Profit under the United States..."

Article I, Section 5: "Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member."

Article II, Section 1: "Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or Affirmation: -- "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) the I will faithfully execute the Office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Article II, Section 4: "The President, Vice President, and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."

Article IV, Section 2: "The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in several States."

Article VI, Section 1 (though unnumbered): "The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to Support this Constitution..."
Where in the Constitution is there a reference to: (write the number)

Article Section Clause

1. The age requirement for serving in the House
(Art. I, Sect. 2, Clause 2)
2. The number of Senators from each state.
(Art. I, Sect. 3, Clause 1)
3. To be President, one must be US-born.
(Art. II, Sect. 1, Clause 5)
4. All revenue (tax) bills must originate in the House, not the Senate.
(Art. I, Sect. 7, Clause 1)
5. The intention to promote the General Welfare
6. To have rights in one state entitles you to rights in all the states.
(Art. IV, Sec. 2, Clause 1)
7. The President serves a four-year term.
(Art. II, Sect. 1, Clause 1)
8. The trial of crimes shall be by jury.
(Art. III, Sect. 2, Clause 3)
9. Congress may not pass ex post facto laws.
(Art. I, Sect. 9, Clause 3)
10. Each states appoints electors.
(Art. II, Sect. 1, Clause 2)
11. The slave trade compromise.
(Art. I, Sect. 2, Clause 3)
12. Who presides over an impeachment trial?
The Senate: (Art. I, Sect. 3, Clause 6)
13. Who has the power to declare war?
Congress: (Art. I, Sect. 8, Clause 11)

In your own words, what does Article I, Section 8, Clause 18 mean?

Congress has the power to make any laws necessary at the time in order to
allow all branches of the government (and anything else that may apply to
either government or the Constitution) to run smoothly. Basically, Congress
can make whatever policy they need when they need it.

AP Government-FRQ-Chap 3

Well, sorry I came too late for Chap. 2, but here's the FRQ for Chap. 3:

1. Define cooperative federalism as it applies to the United States today.
Discuss ways that the federal government financially links itself to the

2. Select one of the following policy areas and explain why a state may
not wish to accept federal funding to help support that concern.

Disabled Americans

Good luck!

Thursday, February 21, 2008

AP Government-Module-Chap 3-Part 1-

Defining federalism:

  • Two or more governments share power over the same constitutes
  • Keeps government from holding too much power over the people
  • Anti-feds. Feared a strong national government, and focused on the protection in individual rights
    • Felt the constitution was meant to protect the wealthy
    • Thought the national gov, should not be focused on economic gain
  • Hamilton, Madison, and Jay wrote the federalist papers in response
  • Dual Federalism: took thing a step further: separated state and national government
    • Each layer would maintain its own sphere of government
    • Federal government connects layers while keeping them separate

  • Unitary government:
    • Puts all nations power with centralized government
  • Confederation:
    • Weak central government dominated forms stronger state ones
      • UN

    Separation of National and State Governments

  • Gives separate but equal powers to the state and national government
    • State has reserved powers
      • "Police Power"
        • Power to tax
        • Borrow Money
        • Define crimes
        • Punish criminals
    • National government has delegated powers
      • Enumerated: Outlined in constitution
        • Declare war
        • Regulate foreign and interstate commerce
        • Conduct foreign relations
        • Coin money
        • Maintain a military
      • Implied: Needed to carry out enumerated powers
        • Elastic clause gives the Congress the power to make laws needed to carry out their duties"
      • Inherent: Power considered a national duty of any government
        • Controlling immigration
        • Acquiring new territory
    • Supremacy Clause give national government an upper edge
    • State governments are given all power the national government doesn't have by the 10th amendment
    • Three debates:
      • Implied powers: McCulloch vs. Maryland
      • Commerce powers: Gibbons vs. Ogden; 1824
      • Civil war: Calhoun: Nullification

    Terms To Know

  • Concurrent Powers: Powers shared and exercised jointly under the Constitution by both national and state governments.
  • Confederation: A way of organizing a nation or group of nations so that the central government is loosely formed and dominated by the stronger state governments
  • Delegated Powers: The powers granted to the national government by the Constitution
  • Dual Federalism: A system of government where the national government and state governments have distinct realms of authority that do not overlap
  • Elastic Clause: Clause in the Constitution that that authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers
  • Federalism: A way of orginizing a nation so that two or more governments share power over the same constituents
  • Enumerated Powers: Powers of the federal government that are given directly in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article 1, Section 8
  • Federalist Papers: Collection of 85 articles written as political theory in defense of the Constitution of the US and federalism
  • Implied Powers
  • Inherent Powers: Powers that are not expressly delegated by the Constitution, but held by any national government of a sovereign state
  • Layer Cake Federalism: Used to describe dual federalism as a system with distinct layers of a government, each with their own sphere of influence
  • McCulloch v Maryland: Supreme Court decision that establishing the supremacy of the national government over state governments
  • Reserved Powers: Powers of state government. Powers that are not given to the national government, but which are not denied to the states
  • Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties the superlative law of the land when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits
  • Unitary Government: A form of government in which one centralized body is the sole governingaplo unit

AP Government -Federalist Papers-

1. What is essential to the "preservation of liberty?" How should this "be so constituted?"
"separate and distinct exercise of the different powers of government" So each department should have a will of its own. Members of each should should have as little to do with agencies of others.

2. Analyze the following: "A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions."
The government needs to depend on the the people, but as the Articles taught there are steps that need to be taken by the central government to still protect the people and the itself.

3. In a republican government, which branch is the strongest? Identify three ways of "remedying this inconveniency."
The legislative government is the most powerful in a republican government. Three ways of fixing this is to divide the legislative into three branches, keep them little connected, and guard against encroachment

4. List two ways in which the federal system of the U.S. "places that sytem in a very interesting point of view," i.e., protects against tyranny:
The first is the double security coming from the the divided power of the people.
The second is protecting people from oppression from a ruler and from each other

5. What does Madison mean when he says, "The great security against a gradual concentration of several powers in the same department consists in giving to those who administer each department, the necessary constitutional means, and personal motives, to resist encroachments of the others"?
Departments are given the power to resist against other departments to keep themselves from being overwhelmed and controlled by other departments

Monday, February 18, 2008

Art History - Chap 17 - Images

17-1 The Battle of San Romano
-Paolo Uccello, 1430's. Tempera on wood panel, 6' x 10'7"
-It has a more realistic way of creating space and linear perspective that makes things look as if they go into the distance.
-The Medici family commissioned the painting from Paolo Uccello (Paul of the Birds) because the Florentine general was a good friend of the family.
-The peasants in the background ignore the chaos and continue their work
-The orange trees seen in full bloom are not native to this area but the painter added them because it was the symbol for the Medici family the orange balls are known as the medicinal appla or mala medica.

17-2 Giotto di Bondone
-Frescoes, scrovegni (arena) Chapel, Padua, 1305-1306. View towards the east wall.
-The artist created massive three dimensional figures that showed emotion and movement
-The figures were in shallow defined spaces, and in natural light

-Shows biblical events, in registers
-The altar shows the story of Mary and Joseph in the rectangular panels.
-The paintings show typology, where old testament events foreshadow new testament events

17-11 Merode Alterpeice (Triptych of the Annunciation)
-Robert Campin, c. 1425-28. Oil on wood panel.
-Hidden symbols in the scenes are lilies in the majolica, glazed earthenware, pitcher on the table symbolize Mary's virginity.
-White towel and hanging water pot in the niche symbolize Mary's purity and as a vessel for the incarnation of God
-The symbols in scene were known by the people of that time but not so clear today
-There are several interpretations of the middle scene; the angel has just informed Mary that she will have Jesus and she is accepting it, the moment before the Annunciation.

17-12 The Annunciation
-Jan van Eyck, c. 1434-36. Oil on canvas, transferred from wood panel, painted surface.
-It was placed in a richly appointed church not in Mary's house
-Gabriel is depicted young and richly robed and very colorful wings
-The figures gesture to the dove flying down will Mary finds out that she will have Jesus Christ
-There are golden letters coming out of their lips
-Dove symbolizes the Holy Spirit, the lilies symbolize Mary and the zodiac show the traditional date, March 25.
-The windows in the background represent the trinity

17-13 Man in a Red Turban
-Jan van Eyck, 1433. Oil on wood panel
-Thought to be Jan's self-portrait
-The face resembles that of the painter to every fine detail, the stubble and the poorly lite studio

17-14 Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini (?) and His Wife, Giovanna Cenami
-Jan van Eyck, 1434. Oil on wood panel
-The artist signed the piece on the back wall by the mirror "Jan van Eyck was here
-An interpretation is that it was a wedding or betrothal
-the piece has combined the secular and religious
-surrounding the couple are symbols of wealth piety and married life
-The mirror may represent God's all-seeing eye, the dog may represent fidelity

17-15 Deposition
-Rogier van der Weyden, from an altarpiece commissioned by the Crossbowmen's Guild, Louvian, Brabant, Belgium
-The background has been gilded and makes the figure seen like they were pressing forward.
-The curved form of the Jesus is echoed by the form of the fainted Mary, it is meant to express the pain of the virgin to the viewer.
-It shows humanism in its concern for the individual expressions, all the characters react in a unique way

17-16 Last Judgment Altarpiece
-Rogier van der Weyden, after1443. Oil on wood panel. Made for a hospital in Breaune
-polyptych a multiple-panel work
-in the central panel Micheal is weighing souls on a rainbow above Christ under his order. Onthe ends of the rainbows are the Virgin and John the Baptist and six apostles on either side
-The clouds represents the heavenly realm

17-17 Portrait of a Lady
-Rogier van der Weyden, c.1460. Oil and tempera on wood panel
-transforms an ordinary young lady into a beauty
-long almond shaped eyes, regular features, smooth translucent skin, typical characteristics of Rogiers painting
-half-length pose with a high waistline and clasped hands (the artists used these characteristics for the Virgin and child
-pious and humble while wealthy proper and modest, shows the middle class patrons of art

17-18 Saint Eloy (Eligius) in His Shop
-Petrus Christus,01449. Oil on oak panel
-Eloy was a 7th century ecclesiastic, goldsmith and mintmaster for the French court. He helped rescue Christian captives with his wealth. He became the patron saint of metalworkers
-behind them figures is a crystal reliquary with a gold dome and a ruby and amethyst reliquary
-The two figure behind Saint Eloy is a young aristocratic couple, the man has on a badge that shows that he is a member of the royal court. the Lady is wearing the headdress that was worn by the ladies of the queen of France

17-49 Gates of Paradise (East Doors), Baptistry of San Giovanni, Florence
-Lorenze Ghilberti, 1425-52. Gilt bronze, height 15'
-shows ten Old Testament scenes in the door panels, the creation to the reign of Solomon
-the bust portrait appears in lower right corner of Jacob and Esau

17-76 Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Francis, John the Baptist, Job, Dominic, Sebastian, and Louis of Toulouse
-Giovanni Bellini, from the Church if San Giobbe, Venice, c. 1478. Oil on wood panel
-Sacra conversazione, is what this type of composition is called with the saints, angels, and the painting's donor
-shows a perspective view up into a vaulted apse
-uses a low vanishing point
-Saint Sebastian has arrows in his body
-The figure are in a Classical architectural interior

AP Government –Chap 2- Notes (1/2)

The Constitution:

  • The Origins of the Constitution
    • 1776: Declaration of Independence passed in Philadelphia supporting an armed revolution against the British
    • Attempting to overthrow the government is a serious act and considered treason punishable by death
    • Road to Revolution:
      • Life was not bad for most people in America at the time by current standards
      • White colonists were "freer, more equal, more prosperous, and less burdened . . ."
      • Britain generally confined themselves to only government America's foreign policy and trade
      • After the French and Indian War Britain put up taxes to pay for the costs
      • They also began tightening enforcement on its trade regulations which were design to benefit the mother country rather than the colonies
        • Colonists outraged, they protested, boycotted, and went through with the Boston Tea Party
          • Britain reacted through a naval blockade
          • Colonists formed the First Continental Congress in 1774
    • Declaring Independence:
      • May and June 1776 the Congress began debating resolutions
      • Richard Henry Lee moved that "these United States are and of right ought to be free and independent states"
        • June 7: Committee of Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Sherman, and Livingston formed to draft the Declaration of Independence
        • July 2: Lee's motion approved
        • July 4: Jefferson's Dec. of Independence adopted
      • Can be read as a political tact and a philosophical treatise
      • Politically:
        • Justified and announced a revolution
        • Listed the ways the king had abused them
        • Colonists need foreign support of countries such as France to take on the British
    • The English Heritage: The Power of Ideas:
      • Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Morris, and Hamilton were all learned men familiar with the works of English philosophers
        • John Locke influenced the Dec.
          • He built his philosophy on the belief of natural rights
          • Said that the laws of nature govern people
          • Believed government should be built on the consent of the governed (people must agree on who their rulers will be)
          • Should also be a limited government (clear restrictions on what rulers can do)
          • The sole purpose of government was to protect the natural rights
          • Supported two limits:
            • Governments must provide standing laws so the people know in advance whether their acts will acceptable
            • Supreme power cannot take from any man any part of property with his consent
          • Said people have right to rebel against their government that no longer has their consent
            • People should no revolt until injustice become deeply felt
    • Jefferson's Handiwork: The American Creed
      • Said that since the government had failed to secure the rights of the people the people had the right to create their own government
      • People should have primacy over the government and should rule rather than be ruled
    • Winning Independence:
      • 1775: British had 8,500 men stationed in the colonies and 30,000 mercenaries
        • Initially the colonies only had 5,00 uniformed men
      • 1783: Won independence
    • The "Conservative" Revolution:
      • Did not completely alter the colonists way of life
      • Primary goal was to restore rights
  • The Government that Failed: 1776-87
    • 1776: Articles of Confederation drawn
    • The Articles of Confederation:
      • Government dominated by the states
      • National legislature with one house
        • States could send 2-7 delegates, but only had one vote
      • No president, no national court
      • 1781: Finally put into effect after ML ratified them
      • Congress had few powers and little money
        • Had to get permission from states to tax
        • Sold western land
        • Disbanded the army
        • Did not have power to regulate commerce
    • Changes in the States:
      • States adopted bills of rights to protect freedoms, abolished religious requirements for hold office, and liberalized requirements for voting
      • Farmers and craft workers became a decisive majority with the voting restrictions gone
      • Structure of government in the states become more responsive to the people
    • Economic Turmoil:
      • Postwar depression left farmers in debt and threatened with foreclosures
      • Printed worthless money to get the farmers out of debt
    • Shay's Rebellion:
      • Policies favoring the debtors over the creditors did not please the economic elite
      • 1786: Band of farmers rebelled when they lost their land
        • Led by Daniel Shay
        • Series of attacks on courthouses
        • Congress nor state was able to get an army to stop the attacks
    • Aborted Annapolis Meeting:
      • 1786: Handful of leaders met in Md. to discuss Article problems and suggest solutions
        • Only five states were represented
        • Decided that a larger meeting was necessary
  • Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention
    • Reps from 12 states attended (RI did not send a delegate)
    • They were ordered to meet to only revise the Articles
    • Reps did not pay attention to this order because to revise the Articles they needed unanimous consent, which they knew to impossible
    • Instead they began writing the US Constitution
    • Gentlemen in Philadelphia:
      • The men in attendance were mainly men of wealth
      • Coastal residents rather than residents of the western frontiers
      • Most from urban America
    • Philosophy in Action:
      • Debates ranged from high principles on big issues to self-interest on the small ones
      • First two weeks devoted to general debates about the nature of republican government
      • Though all had different ideas on government they all shared one common ground:
        • Human nature: Delegates held a cynical view of human nature; they thought they were self-interested
          • Government should play a role in containing the natural self-interest of people
        • Causes of political conflict: The distribution of wealth is the greatest cause
          • Factions are caused by these conflicts
          • If unchecked the factions might tyrannize each other
          • Majority would seize the government to reduce the wealth, the minority would seize the government for its own gains
        • Objects of government: The preservation of individual rights to acquire and hold wealth
        • Nature of government: Power should set against power so that no one faction would overwhelm the others
          • Limited government would have to contain checks on its own power
          • Separation of power would be needed
  • The Agenda in Philadelphia
    • The Equality Issues:
      • Equality and Representation of the States:
        • How would the new Congress be constituted?
          • New Jersey Plan: Paterson; called for equal representation
          • Virginia Plan: Randolph; representation based on population
          • Connecticut Compromise: Sherman and Johnson; two houses of congress, one with equal rep. the other based on pop.
            • Actually gives more power to smaller states
      • Slavery:
        • Congress could limit future importations, but did not forbid slavery
        • Said the escapees had to be returned to owners
        • 3/5ths Compromise
      • Political Equality:
        • Some suggested universal manhood suffrage, others wanted property ownership to be a requirement
        • Decided that if one was qualified for state voting the could vote in national elections
    • Economic Issues:
      • Delegates disagreed on whether the economy was in shambles
      • Federalists stressed the economies weaknesses
      • Writers of the constitution addressed the following:
        • States had erected tariffs against products from other states
        • Paper money was worthless in some states, but many state governments forced it on creditors
        • Congress was having trouble raising money because the economy was in a recession
      • All believed a strong national government was needed to bring economic stability to the union of states
      • Delegates made sure the Constitution clearly laid out the economic powers of Congress
        • Was to be chief policymakers
        • Could obtain revenue through taxes and borrowing
        • Congress could punish counterfeiters and pirates
        • Ability to regulate interstate and foreign trade
    • I

AP Government –Chap 2- Module 3-

Constitutional Principles

  • Presented brief document shown to the public:
    • Outlined a framework and procedures of the proposed government
    • Set limits on how much power that government would have
  • Principles:
    • Popular sovereignty: Ensures all power belongs to the people
    • Limited government: Gov can only do what the people give it the authority to do
    • Separation of power: Three parts: legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch
    • Check and balances: Gives three branches power to restrain the other, preventing any one from gaining absolute power
    • Judicial review: Courts have the power to declare an action unconstitutional, making it illegal
    • Federalism: Divides power between the national government and state or regional government
      • Wanted to prevent central government from getting complete control

    Structure of the Constitution:

  • Writers made sure the document would lead to a more perfect union
    • Original structure:
      • Preamble: Mission statement for new nation, outlining the broad purposes the Constitution was designed to address
      • Article one: Establishes the rules and requirements for the legislative branch
        • House of Reps will be reelected every four years and calls for the number of delegates per state to be based on the population
        • Member of the senate must be elected every 6 years, two reps per state
        • Defines power of congress
          • Tax, borrow, coin money, regulate commerce, grant patents and copyrights, establish a military, and declare war
        • Elastic clause: Gives Congress the implied powers to do that which is necessary and proper for carrying out its duties
        • Government is prohibited from denying citizens a writ of habeas corpus
        • Prevents gov. from issuing bills of attainder
        • Prevents gov. from establishing 'ex post facto laws'
      • Article 2:
        • Rules for executive branch
        • President and vice president are to be elected every four years
        • Pres. Serves as Commander-in-Chief of the military and the nations chief diplomat
        • Power to appoint federal judges, grant reprieves and pardons, and make treaties
        • Civil officers may be removed from office by impeachment
      • Acticle 3:
        • Creates supreme court
        • Allows all federal judges to serve for life
        • Guarantees a person accused of a federal crime the right to jury trial
      • Article 4:
        • Outlines the relationship between the states
        • Requires each state to give full faith and credit to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of other states
        • Gives full privileges and immunities to the citizens of each state
        • Rules for creating new states
      • Article 5:
        • How amendment are made
        • 2/3rds vote required
        • Amended 27 times
      • Article 6:
        • Outlines transfer of debt to new gov.
        • Supremacy clause
      • Article 7:
        • Ratifying constitution: needed 9 out of 13 states

    Need to Know Terms:

    Bill of Attainder: Bill passed by a legislature imposing a penalty on an individual or group, holding them responsible for a crime without trial

    Elastic Clause: Clause that authorizes Congress to pass laws to carry out the enumerated powers

    Electoral College: A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors from each state. Although the Electoral College vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner-take-all rule gives power to big states.

    Enumerated Powers: Powers of the federal government that are given directly in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article I, Section 8 and include the power to coin money, declare war, and impose taxes.

    Ex Post Facto Laws: Laws that make actions criminal after they have occurred. Prohibited by Article I, Section 9 of the Constitution.

    Federalism: A way of organizing a nation so that two or more governments share power over the same constituents. Sovereignty is shared between the governments.

    Fell Faith and Credit Clause: A clause in Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.

    Judicial Review: The power of the Supreme Court to determine whether acts of Congress--and by implication, the executive branch--are in accord with the U.S. Constitution. Judicial review is a basic principle of the Constitutional system and was established by Chief Justice John Marshall in the Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison in 1803.

    Supremacy Clause: Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties the superlative law of the land when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.

    Writ of Habeas Corpus: A court order that prevents arbitrary imprisonment by requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.

AP Government -Chap 2 Module 2-

Articles of Confederation

  • Idea of organizing a unified government was not a new idea
    • Proposed during French and Indian war
  • Ben Franklin proposed Albany plan of Union:
    • Annual congress of delegates for all 13 colonies
      • Organize military
      • Regulate trade
      • Collect taxes
    • Had support of people at meeting, but no colony ratified it and Britain would not endorse it
    • Laid ground for future America
  • During revolutionary war a unified government was established
  • Articles of Confederation:
    • Adopted in 1777
    • Enacted in 1781
    • Established a league of friendship for security and defense
    • Limited power to government
    • Each state held power and freedom
    • Colonies had a national identity
    • Allowed passage of Northwest Ordinance of 1787
      • New state creation
      • Outlawed slavery in territory
      • Set aside land for education
      • Encouraged development of land
    • National gov. with no real power was ineffective
    • Unable to regulate commerce, economic rivalry between states occurred while the government could do nothing
    • Led to territorial conflicts and civil unrest
    • Armed uprising: Shay's Rebellion
      • Led to debt relief being approved
      • This and other rebellions led to showing the weakness of the Articles

    The State of Constitutions:

  • Colonies drafted their own state constitutions
    • Combined Britain's legal respect for status, fairness, and due process with American inclusions such as individualism
    • Checks and balances in legislative government; division of power
      • Executive veto, judicial review, and legislative confirmation of appointments
    • Civil liberties protected
    • Legal voting requirements, lower requirements for political offices
    • Women excluded in the constitutions, slaves were not human beings
    • Farmers would appeal to state legislatures for relief from debt
      • Series of funding denials followed=Caused frustrations
        • Shay's Rebellion
    • Continental congress could not help, they did not have power over states
      • Congress was busy with debts from the Revolution
      • Depression in colonies were making things worse
      • France and Spain restricted trade and closed ports to American trade

    The U.S. Constitution

  • 1786 :
    • Depression
    • Convention in Maryland arranged in hopes of finding a solution
      • Only 5 states sent delegates
      • Actions put off until all states were represented
    • May:
      • Philadelphia convention
        • 12 delegates; RI did not show up
        • Began writing a new doc
        • All goals were different
          • Discussions were unfocused
          • Talked about sovereignty, land protection, right protection
        • Agreed on the dangers of factions and parties and the need to control them
        • Found common ground on several issues:
          • State of human nature
          • Causes of political conflict
          • Objects of government
          • Nature of a republican government
        • Legislative Rep.
          • Two Proposals:
            • New Jersey Plan:
              • Equal representation regardless of population
            • Virginia Plan:
              • Representation based on population
          • Sherman and Johnson proposed The Great Compromise
            • Would have a…
              • Senate: two members from each state
              • House of Reps.: Based on population
        • Slavery:
          • Those who wanted to abolish it met great conflict with Southern reps.
          • Decided congress could limit future importation
          • South wanted slaves to be counted for reps.
            • North replied that if they were being represented then they should be counted for taxation
            • Met with the 3-5ths Compromise: 3 of 5 slaves counted
        • Stronger executive braches with national court system
        • Agreed to allow:
          • Regulation of nations commerce and economy
          • Power to levy taxes
          • Pay debts
          • Borrow money
          • Create money and regulate its value
          • Regulate domestic and international commerce
          • Establish bankruptcy laws


    Albany Plan of Union: Proposal by Ben Franklin that called for an annual congress of delegates with the authority to organize military forces, regulate trade, and collect taxes. Not ratified.

    Articles of Confederation: Adopted in 1777 and enacted in 1781, the Articles of Confederation created a model for what later became the United States Government by instituting a government with a unicameral legislature and leaving most authority with the state legislatures.

    Check and Balances: An important part of the Madisonian model designed to limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually restrict or check one another's activities, reflecting Madison's goal of setting power against power.

    Connecticut Compromise: The compromise reached at the Constitutional Convention that established two houses of Congress: the House of Representatives, in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives. Also known as the "Great Compromise."

    Factions: Interest groups that develop from the unequal distribution of property or wealth. Today's parties or interest groups are what James Madison had in mind when he warned in Federalist Paper No. 10 of the instability in government caused by factions.

    Jew Jersey Plan: Proposed at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, the New Jersey Plan called for equal representation of each state in Congress, regardless of the state's population.

    Northwest Ordinance: Officially titled ''An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States North-West of the River Ohio,'' the Northwest Ordinance was passed on July 13, 1787. It encouraged development of the area that eventually became the states of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and it established a method for new state creation, outlawed slavery in the territory, and set aside land for education.

    Philadelphia Convention: In May of 1787, delegates representing 12 of the 13 states attended a convention in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. However, the delegates chose to write a new document, which became the United States Constitution.

    Shay's Rebellion: A series of attacks on courthouses by a small group of farmers led by Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays to block farm foreclosure proceedings.

    3-5ths Compromise: Compromise between the Northern and Southern states at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that 3 of every 5 slaves would be counted for purposes of representation and taxation.

    Virginia Plan: Proposed at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, the Virginia Plan called for representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state's share of the U.S. population.

Art History -Chap 17- Images

Battista Sforza and Federico do Montefeltro; Piero della Francesca; 1472-73

  • Painted in tempera in light colors
  • Resembles Flemish painting in detail and luminosity
  • Figures portrayed in strict profile, as remote from the viewer as icons
    • Profile does not show Federico's missing right eye or broken nose
  • Emphasized underlying geometry of forms
  • River in Federico's panel leads the eye to the background

    Primavera; Sandro Botticelli; 1482

  • Painted with Neoplatonic ideas interwoven with estoteric references to classical sources
  • Painted on theme of love in fertility because it was painted at the time of Medici wedding
  • Venus is framed by arching trees in the center, above her is her son Cupid
  • Right: Flora, goddess of flowers; Chloris, nymph; Zephyr, Wind god
  • Left: Three Graces; Mercury, messenger god
    • He is protecting Venus from a dark storm cloud

    The Birth of Venus; Sandra Botticelli; 1484-86

  • Based on Antique statue of Venus
  • She was born of sea foam and Zephyr and Chloris
  • She is presented here modestly but still with sexuality

    Delivery of the Keys to Saint Peter; Perugino; 1482

  • Christ giving the keys to the kingdom of heaven to apostle Peter
  • Linear perspective
  • The paved stones provide a geometric grid for perspectival recession
  • Vertically divided by open space between Christ and Peter
  • Horizontally divided by freize of large figures and open space
  • Triumphant arches are at either side of the square with a church in the cetner

    The Expulsion for Paradise; Masaccio; 1427

  • Fresco
  • Represented the mass of bodies formed by their underlying structure
  • A more generalized but focused illumination
  • More focused with the psychology of individual humans who have been cast mourning and protesting from Eden

    Adam and Eve; Jan van Eyck; 1432

  • Oil on wood
  • Captured every detail of the surfaces of the figures
  • Used intense, single-source light
  • Traditional Christian wrongdoing and on the forbidden fruit in eve's hand
  • At the top of the panel is Cain killing Abel

    Annunciation; Fra Angelico; 1441-45

  • Fresco painted on monastic cell; reflects location
  • Depicts Gabriel telling Mary that she is with child
  • Natural light comes from the left, a supernatural glow comes from Gabriel's face and hands
  • Linear perspective

    Frescos in Camera Picta; Andrea Mantegna; 1465-74

  • Characterized by the use of perspective
  • Di sotto in su (seen from directly below) used on domed ceiling
  • Room appears to be open to a cloud-filled oculus
  • Puttis, four women, and one Arab stare down from the oculus opening

    Tribute Money; Masaccio; 1427

  • Jesus and his disciples are the central focus
  • Linear perspective with atmospheric perspective in the background
  • Fresco
  • Gold leaf halo around the head of Christ and the apostles
  • Divided into three different scenes; tax collector asking for money, Peter fishing, and Peter paying the tax collector

AP Government -Module Notes- Chap 2 Part 1-

Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"

  • The idea of separating with England was generally discarded by many of the colonists, including leaders as late an January 1776
  • Penalties for treason, such as hanging, were severe and kept the colonists loyal
  • The high taxes, strict regulations, and foreign soldiers weakened the allegiance to the crown
  • Thomas Paine
    • One time corset maker and tax collector
    • Wrote 'Common Sense' in January 1776
      • Called the king a 'Royal Brute'
      • Paine was rude in his letter compared to previous ones sent by other colonialist, which were humble and gracious
      • Said the government was not Parliament, but a monarchy
      • Authority of all government officials should come from popular consent
      • Concept of an island ruling a continent deified naturla law
      • Called for an end to the colonists' political wavering over British rule and promoted the idea of an American republic where free citizens were in control
      • Within months of its release 150,000 copies of Common Sense circulated through the colonies
      • Inspired Patriots to break from tradition and support independence
    • Published another work called The American Crisis, No 1
      • From this comes the battle cry of the American Revolution

Declaration of Independence

  • Prohibitory Act was passed by Britain in December 1775
    • Closed all colonial ports and defined resistance to the Crown as treason
    • 2nd Continental Congress responded by authorizing privateers to operate against British shipping
    • Discovered that the British were hiring foreign mercenaries to crush resistance
      • Thoughts of mercenaries colonists concluded that a peaceful reconciliation was not possible
  • Continental Congress open trade ports to international trading
  • June 7, 1776 Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee introduced the idea that the US should be free
    • Said they should break from England, but Congress believed a more formal explanation was needed to unify the colonies, secure foreign assistance, and justify their actions to the world
    • Delegates from the middle colonies were reluctant to support the separation and postponed a vote
  • Congress appointed a committee consisting of Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson to prepare a formal declaration
    • Committee selected Jefferson to write the first draft
    • Final version submitted to congress on June 28th, 1776
  • Jefferson's writing
    • Included several familiar ideas
    • Came from discussions on congress, writings of John Locke, government proclamation
    • Three Parts
      • Preamble: natural rights
        • People have right to overthrow government if they infringe their rights
      • Draws parallels with Common Sense
        • Lists the wrong doings of the king
      • Justifies colonists actions by documenting the colonists attempts at a peaceful resolution
        • Declared the colonies independence
  • July 4th 1776, Congress approved the declaration
  • Had influence on other countries
  • Remains an inspiration to all

    Need to Know Terms:

  • Common Sense: Thomas Paine's essay supporting the colonies split from England
  • Declaration of Independence: Drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved in 1776, stated grievances against the British monarch and declared independence
  • Natural Rights: Rights inherent in human beings, not dependence on governments. Include life, liberty, and property.