Newest Assignments and Dates (If assignment is online it shall be stated below)

  • 03-17-2008 - 03-21-2008 -Spring Break (FREEDOM)
  • 03-21-2008 -Art History Outline and images
  • Still during spring break: Read Lord of the Flies for techniques/devices, 3 allusions due.

Saturday, October 13, 2007

Discrete -Word Problem-

The fairy princess decided to plan a surprise ball tomorrow. Periwinkle Cupcake Quesadilla decides to help her friends by making them all brand new dresses to make sure they all get noticed while they're dancing. She is making two different styles of dress: a lily dress and an iris dress. The lily dress requires four petal; while the iris dress needs eight. She was only able to pick 136 petals in such short notice. She also want to decorate the dresses with pixie dust to make sure it sparkles under the moonlight. Peri the Fairy only has 64 thimbles of pixie dust since convincing the pixies to sell the dust is very hard. The lily dress needs four thimbles of the pixie dust for just the right amount of glitter and the iris gown only needs two. In Peri's experience the lily dress has an attention capturing factor (ACF)of four male fairies, not including old men and ugly guys. The ACF of the iris dress is six. How many of each dress should she make to maximize her and her friends ACF?



Friday, October 12, 2007

Econ -Unit 1- Chap 2 Notes

Chapter 2: The Economizing Problem


The Foundation of Economics

  • Economizing problem: Society's economic wants are virtually unlimited and insatiable; economic resources are limited or scarce.


    Unlimited Wants

  • Economic Wants: the desires of consumers to obtain and use various goods and services that provide pleasure, satisfaction, or "utility"
  • Necessities: food, shelter, clothing
  • Over time, wants change and tend to multiply, fueled by new products
  • The satisfaction of certain wants tends to trigger others
  • Services, as well as products, satisfy our wants (ex: automobiles and washing machines are bought for the services they render)
  • Businesses and unites of government also strive to satisfy economic goals
  • The objective of all economic activity is to fulfill wants


    Scarce Resources

  • Economic resources: all natural, human, and manufactured resources that go into the production of goods and services
  • Property resources: land, raw materials, capital
  • Human resources: labor and entrepreneurial ability


    Resource Categories

  • Land: includes all natural resources
  • Capital: includes all manufactured aids used in producing consumer goods and services (ex: tools, machinery, factory, transportation, equipment, etc…)

    ~Investment: the process of producing and purchasing capital goods

    ~Capital goods satisfy wants directly

    ~Consumer goods do so indirectly by aiding the production of consumer goods

  • Labor: the physical and mental talents available and usable in producing goods and services
  • Entrepreneurial Ability:

    ~Entrepreneur: takes the initiative in combining the resources of land, capital, and labor to produce a good or service

    -Makes the strategic business decisions

    -Commercializes new products, new production techniques, etc…

    -Has no guaranteed profit

  • Factors of Production: land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial ability


    Resource Payments

  • The income received from supplying raw materials and capital equipment is called rental income and interest income
  • Wages: the income accruing to those who supply labor
  • Profits: the entrepreneurial income


    Relative Scarcity

  • The four factors of production have one thing in common: they are limited in supply

    ~Their scarcity constrains productive activity and output

    Economics: Employment and Efficiency

  • Economics is the social science that examines efficiency-- the best use of scarce resources


    Full Employment: Using Available Resources

  • To realize the best use of scarce resources a society must achieve both full employment and full production
  • Full Employment: the use of all available resources


    Full Production: Using Resources Efficiently

  • Full Production: All employed resources must be used so that they provide the maximum possible satisfaction of our economic wants, if we fail to realize full production, economists say our resources are underemployed
  • Productive efficiency: the production of any particular mix of goods and services in the least costly way
  • Allocative efficiency: the least-cost production of that particular mix of goods and services most wanted by society

    ~This means apportioning limited resources among firms and industries in such a way that society obtains the combination of goods and services it wants the most


    Production Possibilities Table

  • People must choose which goods and services to produce and which to forgo; the necessity and consequences of those choices can best be understood through a production possibilities model


    Assumptions

  • Full employment and productive efficiency: the economy is employing all its available resources and is producing goods and services at the least cost
  • Fixed resources: available supplies of the factors of production are fixed in both quantity and quality
  • Fixed technology: The state of technology-- the methods used to produce output-- does not changed during our analysis
  • Two goods: The economy is producing only two goods: pizzas and industrial robots

    ~Pizzas: symbolize consumer goods

    ~Industrial robots: symbolize capital goods


    The Need for Choice

  • Fixed resources mean limited outputs of consumer goods and capital goods

    ~To increase the production of capital goods we must shift resources away from the production of consumer goods and vice versa

  • Production Possibilities Table: lists the different combination of two products that can be produced with a specific set of resources (and with full employment and productive efficiency)

    ~A shift of resources to consumer goods catches up with society over time as the stock of capital goods dwindles, with the result that some potential for greater future production is lost

    ~A shift of resources to capital goods forgoes current consumption, thereby freeing up resources that can be used to increase the production of capital goods


    Production Possibilities Curve

  • The data presented in a production possibilities table can also be shown graphically
  • Each point on the production possibilities curve represents some maximum output of the two products

    ~The curve is a production frontier because it shows the limit of attainable outputs

    ~To obtain the various combinations that fall on the production possibilities curve, society must achieve both full employment and productive efficiency

    ~Points lying inside the curve are also attainable, but they reflect inefficiency

    ~Point lying outside are unattainable with the current supplies of resources and technology


    Law of Increasing Opportunity Cost

  • Opportunity cost: the amount of other products that must be forgone or sacrificed to obtain 1 unit of a specific good
  • Law of Increasing Opportunity Costs: The more of a product that is produced, the greater is its opportunity cost


    Shape of the Curve

  • The law of increasing opportunity costs is reflected in the shape of the production possibilities curve


    Economic Rationale

  • Economic resources are not completely adaptable to alternative uses
  • Resources are better at producing one good than at producing others
  • To get more consumer goods, resources whose productivity of capital goods is great in relation to their productivity of consumer goods will be needed

    ~It will take more and more of such resources and greater sacrifices of capital goods to achieve each increase of 1 unit in the production of consumer goods

    ~This lack of perfect flexibility, or interchangeability, on the part of resources is the cause of increasing opportunity costs


    Allocative Efficiency Revisited

  • Allocative efficiency: requires that the economy produce at the most valued, or optimal, point on the production possibilities curve
  • Economic decisions center on comparisons of marginal benefits and marginal costs
  • Any economic activity-- whether production/consumption-- should be expanded as long as marginal benefit exceeds marginal costs and reduced if marginal cost exceeds marginal benefit
  • The optimal amount of the activity occurs where MB (marginal benefit) = MC (marginal cost)
  • The second unit of a particular product yields less additional utility or benefit to a person than the first, and a third provides even less marginal benefit than the second.

    ~Although total benefits rise when society consumes more consumer goods, marginal benefits decline


    Unemployment and Productive Inefficiency

  • Graphically, we represent situations of unemployment or productive inefficiency by points inside the original production possibilities curve


    A Growing Economy

  • When we drop the assumption that the quantity and quality of resources and technology are fixed, the production possibilities curve shifts positions-- the potential max output of the economy changes


    Increases in Resource Supplies

  • Although resources supplies are fixed at any specific moment, they can and do change over time

    ~Ex: a growing population will increase the supplies of labor and entrepreneurial ability

    ~Labor quality usually improves over time

    ~The development of irrigation programs, for example, adds to the supply of arable land

  • The net result of these increased supplies of the factors of production is the ability to produce more of both consumer goods and capital goods

    ~The greater abundance of resources will result in a greater potential output of one or both products at each alternative

    ~Society will have achieved economic growth in the form of expanded potential output

  • But such a favorable change in the production possibilities data does not guarantee that the economy will actually operate at a point on its new production possibilities curve


    Advances in Technology

  • Second Assumption: we have constant, unchanging technology
  • Technological advances make possible the production of more consumer and capital goods
  • When either supplies of resources increase or an improvement in technology occurs, the production possibilities curve outward and to the right
  • Economic Growth: the ability to produce a larger total output

    The growth is a result of:

    ~Increases in supplies of resources

    ~Improvements in resource quality

    ~Technological advances

  • Economic growth does not mean proportionate increases in a nation's capacity to produce all its products


    Present Choices and Future Possibilities

  • An economy's current choice of positions on its production possibilities curve helps determine the future location of that curve
  • By choosing an output more favorable to technological advances and to increases in the quantity and quality of resources, the economy will achieve greater economic growth


    A Qualification: International Trade

  • Production possibilities analysis implies that an individual nation is limited to the combinations of output indicated by its production possibilities curve-- but we must modify this principle when international specialization and trade exist
  • An economy can circumvent through international specialization and trade, the output limits imposed by its domestic production possibilities curve
  • International Specialization: directing domestic resources to output that a nation is highly efficient at producing
  • International Trade: involves the exchange of these goods for goods produced abroad
  • Specialization and trade enable a nation to get more of a desired good at less sacrifice of some other good


    Pasted from <file:///C:\Users\Joyce\Documents\School\Physiology\Chapter%202.doc>



Physiology -Chap 4- Outline

Types of Tissues and Their Origins

Four types of body tissue:

  1. Epithelial: Covers body surface & lines hollow organs. Forms ducts.
  2. Connective:
    1. Protects and supports body and organs.
    2. Bind organs together
    3. Stores energy reserves as fat
    4. Provides immunity to diseased agents
  3. Muscular: Generates physical force to make body move
  4. Nervous: Detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside body
    1. Generates actions to respond
    2. Maintains homeostasis

Epithelial tissues develop from all three P.G.L.

Connective forms from Mesoderm

Nervous is made from Ectoderm


Most cells within a tissue are anchored down, some move freely to hunt invaders. During growth and embryonic development many cells move more freely


CELL JUNCTIONS:

5 types

Tight
Junctions:
Consists of weblike strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse outer surfaces of other plasma membranes together. Epithelial tissues have many tight junctions.


Adherins
Junctions
: Contains plaque. Plaque attaches to membrane protiens and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton. Cadherins inserts into plaque of another plasma membrane and connects to other cadherins. In Epithelial cells junctions form extensive zones called adhesion belts.


Desmosomes: Contain plaque and have cadherins that extend into adjacent cells membranes. Unlike

Tight Junction

Adhesion belt Adherens Junctions

Gap Junctions Desmosome Junction





Basement Membrane


Hemidsmosome Junction



Adherens Junctions the plaque does not attach to microfilaments. They instead attach to intermediate

filaments that contain the protein keratin. Prevent epidermal cells from pulling apart during contraction

Hemidesmosomes: Resemble Desmosomes, but do not link adjacent cells. They look like half a Desmosome. The transmembrane glycoprotein in this junction are integrins. Integrins attach to intermediate filaments and to the protein laminin in the basement membrane (meaning Hemidsmosomes attach cells not to each other but to the basement membrane).

Gap Junctions: Membrane protein, connexins forms fluid tunnels call connexons that connect neighboring cells. Plasma membranes are not fused together tightly; there is a narrow intercellular gap.

  1. Through the gap ions and small molecules can diffuse from the cytosol of one cell to another.
  2. Gap Junctions allow cells in the tissue to communicate with each other.
  3. Enable nerve or muscle impulses to spread rapidly among cells

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Epithelial tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in single or multiple layers. Since there are so many junctions, there are little intercellular space between plasma membranes.


Different surfaces differ in structure.

  1. Apical (free) surface: Faces body surface. May contain cilia or microvilli
  2. Lateral surface: Faces adjacent cells on either side. May contain all junctions but hemidsmosomes
  3. Basal surface: Opposite apical surface. Adhere to extracellular materials such as basement membranes.

The basement membrane has two layers.

  1. Basal lamina: closer to and secreted by epithelial cells. Contains proteins such as collagen
  2. Reticular lamina: Closer to underlying connective tissue and contains fibrous proteins produced by connective tissue cells called fibroblasts.


BASEMENT MEMBRANES AND DISEASE

Basement membranes can thicken in certain conditions due to an increase of collagen and laminin. It can lead to blindness and kidney failure if left untreated.


Epithelial cells are subjected to physical stress and injury.

High rates of cell division allows epithelial to renew itself


Epithelial jobs:

  1. Protection
  2. Filtration
  3. Secretion
  4. Absorption
  5. Excretion

Two types of epithelial tissue:

  1. Covering and lining epithelium: Outer covering of skin and some internal organs.
  2. Glandular epithelium: Secreting portion of glands; thyroid glands, sweat glands, ect.



Vocab:

Primary
Germ
Layers: Three layers the tissues of the body develop from. They are the first tissue the human embryo forms

Ectoderm: One of three layers the body tissues develop from

Endoderm: One of three layers the body tissues develop from

Mesoderm: One of three layers the body tissues develop from

Cell
Junctions: Contact points between plasma membranes of tissue cells

Tight
Junctions: One of five types of junctions. Consists of web like strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse outer surfaces of other plasma membranes together. Seen in many epithelial tissues

Adherens
Junction: One of five types of junctions. Help Epithelial surfaces resist separation during contractile activities

Plaque: Dense layer of proteins on inside of plasma membrane

Cadherins: Transmembranes glycoprotein. Joins cells in Adherins Junctions

Adhesion
Belts: Circulation of the cell when Epithelial cells have adherens junctions

Desmosomes: One of five types of junctions. Contain plaque that binds to intermediate filaments that contain keratin.

Hemidesmosome: One of five types of junctions. Similar to desmosomes, but that it contains intergins instead of cadherins and attaches to laminin on the basement membrane.

Intergins: Present in Hemidsmosomes. Tranmembrane glycoprotein. Attaches to intermediate filaments on the inside and laminin on the outside.

Laminin: Protein located in the basement membrane.

Gap
Junctions: One of five types of junctions. Contains connexon forming connexins. The bond formed isn't tight. There is a gap between the membranes.

Connexins: Membrane protein used in gap junctions. Forms connexons.

Connexons: Tiny fluid filled tunnel formed by connexins. Forms gap junctions.

Apical
Surface: One of three surfaces of the epithelial. Faces body surface. Outermost surface.

Lateral Surface: One of three surfaces of the epithelial. Faces two adjacent cells on.

Basal
Surface: One of three surfaces on the epithelial. Opposite of apical. Located in the deepest layer of cells adhere to extracellular materials.

Basement
Membrane: Extracellular layer that commonly consists of two layers.

Avascular: Lacks blood supply

Covering
and
Lining
Epithelium: One of two types of epithelial tissue. Outer covering of skin.

Glandular
Epithelium: One of two types of epithelial tissue. Makes up secreting portion of glands.


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COVERING AND LINING EPITHELIUM

Two main characteristics:

  1. Arrangement of cells in layers: Layer and shape of cells covering depend on the function of the cell.
    1. Simple Epithelium: Single layer of cells that functions in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, and absorption.
    2. Pseudostratified Epithelium: Appears to have multiple layers of cells. Some may contain cilia and others secrete mucus.
    3. Stratified Epithelium: Has two or more layers that protect underlying tissues
  2. Cell shapes:
    1. Squamous: Like floor tiles, thin
    2. Cuboidal: Shaped like cubes, may have microvilli at apical surface
    3. Columnar: Shaped like columns, protect underlying tissues. Specialized for absorption and secretion
    4. Transitional: Changes shape from flat to cuboidal as organs stretch and shrink

Types of covering and lining:

  1. Simple
    1. Simple squamous: Single layer of flat cells, tiled floor, located where filtration or diffusion take place
      1. Endothelium: Lines heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
      2. Mesothelium: Forms serious membranes
    2. Simple cuboidal: Cell nuclei round and located in center. Performs secretion and absorption, found in organs such as thyroid gland and kidneys
    3. Simple columnar: Oval nuclei; comes in two forms
      1. Nonciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium
        1. W/ Microvilli: Increase rate of absorption by cell
        2. Goblet cells: Secretes mucus. Mucus is a lubricant for linings of digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts.
      2. Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium: Also contains goblet cells. Cilia beat in unison moving things toward the throat
    4. Pseudostratified columnar: Nuclei are at different depths, some cells do not extend to surface, the cells that do reach the surface either secrete mucus or contain cilia.
  2. Stratified:
    1. Two or more layers of cells. More durable.
      1. Striated squamous: Cuboidal to columnar shape in deep layers. Forms layers of skin, lining of mouth, covers tongue, part of pharynx, and vagina. For protection
      2. Striated cuboidal: Cells in apical layer are cube-shaped, located on ducts of sweat glands, esophageal glands, and part of male urethra. For protection and limited secretion and absorption
      3. Striated columnar: Irregularly shaped cells, lines part of urethra, excretory ducts of some glands, for protection and secretion
      4. Transitional: Ranged from squamous to cuboidal. Lines bladder and parts of ureters and urethra. It permits distension.


Secretion: Production and release of substances such as mucus, sweat, or enzymes

Absorption: Intake of fluids or other substances such as digested food frm. intestinal tract.

Endothelium: Kind of simple squamous. Lines heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels

Mesothelium: Kind of simple squamous. Forms serious membranes

Microvilli: Fingerlike cytoplasmic projections; increases surface area of plasma membrane

Goblet
cells: Modified columnar cells that secretes mucus


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COVERING AND LINING EPITHELIUM

Two main characteristics:

  1. Arrangement of cells in layers: Layer and shape of cells covering depend on the function of the cell.
    1. Simple Epithelium: Single layer of cells that functions in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, and absorption.
    2. Pseudostratified Epithelium: Appears to have multiple layers of cells. Some may contain cilia and others secrete mucus.
    3. Stratified Epithelium: Has two or more layers that protect underlying tissues
  2. Cell shapes:
    1. Squamous: Like floor tiles, thin
    2. Cuboidal: Shaped like cubes, may have microvilli at apical surface
    3. Columnar: Shaped like columns, protect underlying tissues. Specialized for absorption and secretion
    4. Transitional: Changes shape from flat to cuboidal as organs stretch and shrink

Types of covering and lining:

  1. Simple
    1. Simple squamous: Single layer of flat cells, tiled floor, located where filtration or diffusion take place
      1. Endothelium: Lines heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
      2. Mesothelium: Forms serious membranes
    2. Simple cuboidal: Cell nuclei round and located in center. Performs secretion and absorption, found in organs such as thyroid gland and kidneys
    3. Simple columnar: Oval nuclei; comes in two forms
      1. Nonciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium
        1. W/ Microvilli: Increase rate of absorption by cell
        2. Goblet cells: Secretes mucus. Mucus is a lubricant for linings of digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts.
      2. Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium: Also contains goblet cells. Cilia beat in unison moving things toward the throat
    4. Pseudostratified columnar: Nuclei are at different depths, some cells do not extend to surface, the cells that do reach the surface either secrete mucus or contain cilia.
  2. Stratified:
    1. Two or more layers of cells. More durable.
      1. Striated squamous: Cuboidal to columnar shape in deep layers. Forms layers of skin, lining of mouth, covers tongue, part of pharynx, and vagina. For protection
      2. Striated cuboidal: Cells in apical layer are cube-shaped, located on ducts of sweat glands, esophageal glands, and part of male urethra. For protection and limited secretion and absorption
      3. Striated columnar: Irregularly shaped cells, lines part of urethra, excretory ducts of some glands, for protection and secretion
      4. Transitional: Ranged from squamous to cuboidal. Lines bladder and parts of ureters and urethra. It permits distension.


Secretion: Production and release of substances such as mucus, sweat, or enzymes

Absorption: Intake of fluids or other substances such as digested food frm. intestinal tract.

Endothelium: Kind of simple squamous. Lines heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels

Mesothelium: Kind of simple squamous. Forms serious membranes

Microvilli: Fingerlike cytoplasmic projections; increases surface area of plasma membrane

Goblet
cells: Modified columnar cells that secretes mucus


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Glandular Epithelium

Function: Secretion

There are two types of glands: Endocrine & Exocrine

Endocrine: Enter the interstitial fluid and diffuse into bloodstream (no ducts)

*Secretions=Hormones: Regulates many metabolic and physiological activities in maintaining HS

Exocrine: Secrete products into ducts that go to surface of lining epithelium

*Secretions=Sweat; mucus, oil, saliva; ect.


Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands

Classification: Unicellular or Multi-cellular

Unicellular: Single celled

* Goblet cells: Secretes mucus directly to apical surface

Multi-cellular: Composed of many cells that form a distinctive micro-cellular structure

Categorized according to two criteria:

* Ducts can be branched or un-branched

* The shape of secretory portions

> Simple Glands: The duct of the gland does not branch out

> Compound Glands: The duct does branch

>Tubular Glands: Tubular secretory parts

>Acinar Glands: Rounded secretory parts

>Tubuloacinar Glands: Have both tubular and rounded secretory parts

-Simple Glands:

a. Simple tubular: Tubular secretory is straight and attaches to a single un-branched duct

b. Simple branched tubular: Tubular secretory is branched. Single duct.

c. Simple coiled tubular: Tubular secretory coiled. Attached to single un-branched duct.

d. Simple Acinar: Secretory is round. Single un-branched duct

e. Simple branched acinar: Rounded and branched secretory. Attached to single un-branched duct.

-Compound Glands:

a. Compound tubular: Secretory is tubular. Attached to branched duct.

b. Compound acinar: Secretory it round and attaches to branched duct.

c. Compound tubuloacinar: Secretory is both round and tubular. Attached to branched duct.






Functional Classification of Exocrine Glands

Function: Based on how secretions are released

Secretion Types:

* Merocrine gland secretion: Synthesized on ribosome attached to RER;

go through Golgi complex; and released through exocytosis

* Apocrine gland secretion: Accumulate at surface, portion is pinched off from cell for release.

* Holocrine gland secretion: Accumulates in cytosol. When cell is matures it ruptures and becomes the product.



Connective Tissue

Functions: Binds together, supports, and strengthens other tissues


Features of Connective Tissue

Two elements: Cells and extra-cellular matrix

Extra-cellular Matrix (E-CM): * Located between widely spaced cells

* Consists of protein fibers and ground substance

* Secreted by connective tissue cells & determines tissue's qualities

*Does not occur on body surface

*Highly vascular (lots of blood)


Connective Tissue Cells

Mesenchymal cells give rise to cells of CT

Types of connective tissue:

  • Fibroblasts: Large flat cells with branching processes. Secretes fibers and ground substances of the E-CM
  • Macrophage: Develop from monocytes (WBC); Irregular shape w/ short branches; can engulf bacteria
    • Fixed Macrophage: Reside in particular tissue
    • Wandering macrophage: Can move through tissue
  • Plasma Cells: Develop from lymphocyte B. Secrete anti-bodies.
  • Mast Cells: Produce histamine (chem. That dialates small blood vessels as part of inflammation response)
  • Adipocytes: Fat cells; nective tissue cells that store triglycerides
  • White Blood Cells (WBC): Migrate frm. Blood into CT


VOCAB.

Gland: Cell(s) that secrete substances into ducts, onto a surface, or into the blood; either endocrine or exocrine

Endocrine Glands: Produces hormones that regulate various body activities

Exocrine: Produces substances such as sweat, oil, ect. Uses ducts

Unicellular: Single celled exocrine glands

Multi-cellular: Composed of many cells that form a distinctive micro-cellular structure

Simple Glands: Type of multi-cellular exocrine gland: The duct of the gland does not branch out

Compound Glands: Type of multi-cellular exocrine gland: The duct does branch

Tubular Glands: Type of multi-cellular exocrine gland: Tubular secretory parts

Acinar Glands: Type of multi-cellular exocrine gland: Rounded secretory parts

Tubuloacinar Glands: Type of multi-cellular exocrine gland: Have both tubular and rounded secretory parts

Simple Tubular: Tubular secretory is straight and attaches to a single un-branched duct

Simple Branched Tubular: Tubular secretory is branched. Single duct.

Simple Coiled Tubular: Tubular secretory coiled. Attached to single un-branched duct.

Simple Acinar: Secretory is round. Single un-branched duct

Simple Branched Acinar: Rounded and branched secretory. Attached to single un-branched duct.

Compound Tubular: Secretory is tubular. Attached to branched duct.

Compound Acinar: Secretory it round and attaches to branched duct.

Compound Tubuloacinar: Secretory is both round and tubular. Attached to branched duct.

Merocrins Glands: Synthesized on ribosome attached to RER; go through Golgi complex; and released

through exocytosis

Apocrine Glands: Accumulate at surface, portion is pinched off from cell for release.

Holocrine Glands: Accumulates in cytosol. When cell is matures it ruptures and becomes the product.

Connective Tissue: Binds together, supports, and strengthens other tissues

Extracellular Matrix: Fills area between widely spaced cells


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Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix

Two major components

Ground Substance:

Fluid, semi-fluid, gelatinous, or calcified

Plays role in how tissues develop, migrate, proliferate, and change shape

Contains glycosaminoglycans-GAGs-polysaccharides

  • GAGs associated w/ proteoglycan
  • GAGs trap water
    • Hyaluronic substance that binds cells together, lubricates joints, and helps maintain shape of eyes
    • Chondroitin Sulfate provides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin, and blood vessels
    • Dermatan sulfate is in skin, tendons, blood vessels, and heart valves
    • Keratan sulfate is in bone, cartilage, and cornea of eye
    • Adhesion sulfate links components of ground substance together and to surface of cells
      • Fibronectin is the main adhesion protein


Fibers

Three types: Collagen; elastic; reticular

  • Collagen
    • Resists pulling forces
    • Allows tissue flexibility
    • Occur in parallel bundles
  • Elastic
    • Branch to form networks
    • Can be stretched to past 150% of original length and go back
  • Reticular
    • Consists of collagen in fine bundles w/ coating of glycoprotein
    • Provide support for walls of blood vessels and form network around cells in some tissues


Classification of Connective Tissues


  1. Embryonic CT: present during the development of a human; during embryonic growth (DUH!)
  2. Mesenchyme: forms all other CT
  3. Mucous CT: Umbilical cord of fetus
  4. Matture CT: Cells arise from mesechyme; found in newborn
  5. Loose CT: loosely intertwined
    1. Areolar CT: All three fibers present; forms subcutaneous layer, layer of tissue that attachesskini to underlying tissues and organs
    2. Adipose tissue: Specialized in storing fats. Reduces heat loss through skin. Supports and protects various organs
    3. Reticular CT: Forms stroma of organs, bind together smooth muscle tissue cells; filters and removes worn-out blood cells in the spleen and microbes in lymph nodes
  6. Dense CT:
    1. Dense regular CT: Provides strong attachment between various structures
    2. Dense irregular CT: Randomly arranged collagen and fibroblasts; provides strength
    3. Elastic CT: Allows stretching of various organs
  7. Cartilage
    1. Hyaline cartilage: Provides smooth surfaces for movement at joints, as well as flexibility and support
    2. Fibrocartilage: Support and fusion
    3. Elastic cartilage: Gives support and maintains shape
  8. Bone tissue: Support, protection, storage, houses blood-forming tissues, serves as levers that act w/ muscle tissue to enable movement
  9. Liquid CT:
    1. Blood tissue: Red blood cells transport O2 and CO2; WBC involved in allergic reactions and immune system responses, platelets essential for clotting of blood
    2. Lymph
  • Compact Bone:
    • Osteon/haversian system
      • Lamellae
        • Concentric rings of E-CM that consists of mineral salts
        • Responsible for compact nature
      • Lacunae
        • Small spaces between lamellae that contain mature bone cells; osteocytes
      • Canaliculi
        • Network of minute canals containing processes of osteocytes
      • Central Canal
        • Contains blood vessels and nerves
  • Spongy bone
    • Lacks osteons
    • Columns of bone called trabeculae
      • Contains lamellae, osteocytes, lacunae, canaliculi


Liquid Connective Tissue

  • Blood
    • Liquid E-CM called blood plasma
    • In the plasma are RBC, WBC, and platelets
  • Lymph
    • EC fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels


VOCAB:

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): Polsaccharides collectively in matrix

Proteoglycan: Forms core protein and GAGS project from proteins

Hyaluronic : Binds cells together, lubricates joints, and helps maintain shape of eyes

Chondroitin: Provides support and adhesiveness in cartilage, bone, skin, and blood vessels

Dermatan
Sulfate: In skin, tendons, blood vessels, and heart valves

Keratan
Sulfate: In bone, cartilage, and cornea of eye

Adhesion
Sulfate: Links components of ground substance together and to surface of cells

Fibronectin: Main adhesion protein

Adipocytes: specialized cells for storing fats

Chondrocytes: Cells of mature cartilage

Lacunae: Little spaces in the matrix where chondrocytes hang out

Perichondrium: Membrane of dense irregular CT that covers surface of most cartilage

Interstitial Growth: A type of cartilage growth; cartilage increase in size due to division of existing chondrocytes

Appostitional Growth: Type of cartilage growth; activity in cells in the inner chondrogenic layer leads to growth



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Muscular Tissue

Produces body movement, maintains posture, and generates heat

  • Muscular Tissue
    • Consists of muscle fibers
    • Produces body movement, maintains posture, and generates heat
    • Three types
      • Skeletal
        • Attached to bones of skeleton
        • Striations: Alternating light and dark bands w/in fibers
        • Voluntary because it can contract or relax by conscious control
        • Cylindrical
        • Many nuclei at periphery
      • Cardiac
        • Forms walls of heart
        • Striated
        • Involuntary; contractions are not controlled
        • Fibers are branched and usually only have one central nucleus, though, it can have two
        • Attach end to end by transverse thickening, called intercalated discs
      • Smooth
        • Located in walls of hollow internal structures; blood vessels, airways, ect.
        • Contraction narrows lumen of blood vessels, break down and move food, move fluids through body, and eliminate wastes
        • Involuntary
        • Nonstriated
        • Small, thickest at middle, tapering at each end


Nervous Tissue

Two types of cells: Neurons & neuroglia

  • Neurons
    • Sensitive to various stimuli
    • Converts stimuli to electric signals called action potential
    • Three body parts of neuron
      • Cell body
        • Has nucleus & other organelles
      • Dendrites
        • Tapered, branched, short cell processes
        • Receiving end
      • Axons
        • Single, thin cylindrical, possibly long processes
  • Neuroglia
    • Do not generate or conduct nerve impulses


Excitable Cells

Cells the exhibit electricity are considered excitable cells

  • Neurons and muscle fibers are considered excitable cells
    • The show electrical excitability
  • Action potential can move through the plasma membrane of a neuron due to voltages presence
  • Neurons produce neurotransmitters with they are electrically excited
  • Muscle fibers contract when this happens


Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis

Replacement of worn-out, damaged, or dead cells

  • Tissue repair
    • New cells come from division of stroma, supporting CT, or parenchyma
    • Each type of cell has it's own way of replenishing old cells
      • Epithelial:
        • Stem cells can divide to replace lost or damaged cells
        • Mature cells can go through cell division
      • Connective:
        • Continuous capacity for regeneration
      • Muscular
        • Muscular is poor at regenerating cells
      • Nervous:
        • Poorest capacity


Aging and Tissues

  • Tissues heal faster and leave less scars when young
  • E-C change w/ age
  • W/ age more cross links form, contributes to stiffening and loss of elasticity



VOCAB:

Muscular
Tissue: Consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers that use ATP to generate force.

Neurons: Building blocks of the brain; one of two nervous system cell type

Action Potential = Nerve
Impulses

Neuroglia: Type of nervous tissue cell; does not conduct nerve impulses

Excitable Cells: Neurons and muscle fibers; hey exhibit electrical excitability

Electrical Excitability: Ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals (action potential)

Parenchyma: cells that constitute functioning part of tissue or organ


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Physiology -Chap 5- Outline

Structure of the Skin

Largest organ in the body

  • Skin (Cutaneous membrane)
    • Largest organ in both size and weight
    • Has two main parts
      • Epidermis
        • Thinner
        • Composed of epithelial tissue
        • Kerantinized stratified squamous epi.
        • Four cells types
          • Keratinocytes
            • Arranged in four or five layers
            • Produce keratin
            • Produce lamellar granules: release water repellent sealant
          • Meloanocytes
            • Develop from ectoderm
            • Produce melanin
              • Yellow-red or brown-black pigment that contributes to skin color
          • Langerhans
            • From red bone marrow and move to epi.
            • Immune responses
          • Merkel
            • Contact flattened process of sensory neuron (tactile disc)
        • Four strata, or layers in most places (thin skin)
          • Stratum basale
          • Stratum spinosum
          • Stratum granulosum
          • Stratum corneum-thin
        • Five layers in certain places (thick skin)
          • Stratum basale
          • Stratum spinosum
          • Stratum granulosum
          • Stratum Lucidum
          • Stratum corneum-thick
      • Dermis
        • Deeper and thicker
        • Connective tissue
  • Subcateous layer (hypodermis)
    • Consists of Areolar and adipose tissue
    • Fibers connect hypodermis to dermis which attaches to organs
    • Storage for fat and contains large blood vessels
    • Contains llamellated corpuscles
      • Nerve endings sensitive to pressure

  • Stratum Basale
  • Deepest Layer
  • Single row cuboidal or columnar keratinocytes
  • Some cells in this layer are stem cells
  • Cytoskeleton of kera. Include tonofilaments
    • Composed of protein that forms keratin in more superficial layers
    • Attech to desmosomes
  • Also known as stratum germination


Stratum Spinosum

Many-sided kera. Fill 8-10 layers

  • When prepared for examination kera. pull apart, form thorn-like points, and shrink
  • When in living tissue they are rounded and larger
  • Add strength and flexibility to skin


Stratum Granulosum

3-5 layers of flattened kera.

  • Kera. is undergoing apoptosis
  • Other organelles degenerate
  • Tonofilaments become more apparent
  • Contains keratohyalin
    • Protein that converts tonofilaments into keratin
  • Contains lamellar granules
    • Releases lipid-rich secretion
      • Fills spaces between cells
      • Water-repellant sealant


Statum Lucidum

Three to five layers of flattened, clear, dead, kera.

  • Only in thick skin
  • Large amounts of kertin, and thickened plasma mem.


    Stratum Corneum

    25-30 layers of flattened dead kera.

  • Continuously shed and replaced
  • Interiors contains mostly keratin
  • Many layers of dead cells protect deeper levels from injury
  • Contant exposure to friction cause callus


Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis

  • Keratinization
    • Cells formed in basale pushed to surface
      • As they move through each layer they obtain more keratin –Keratinization
  • Then they go through apoptosis
  • Takes four weeks
  • Hormone-like proteins play role in epi. regeneration
    • Epidermal growth factor


Dermis

Second part of skin

  • Blood vessels, nerves, glands, and fair follicle embedded
  • Divided into two parts
    • Papillary region
      • 1/5 of total layer
      • Areolar CT
      • Surface area increased by dermal papillae
        • Nipple-shaped
        • Contain capillary loops, tactile receptors called corpuscles of touch, nerve endings, and free nerve ending
    • Reticular region
      • Attached to subcutaneous layer
      • Contains dense irregular CT
      • Collagen & elastic fibers provide strength, extensibility, and elasticity
      • Extreme stretching may tear dermis, causing striae (stretch marks)

Notes

SKIN GAFTS

  • New skin cannot regenerate if stratum basale is destroyed by an injury
  • To heal skin you need a skin gaft
    • Patch of healthy skin, taken from a donor site



VOCAB.

Cutaneous Membrane: Skin

Epidermis: Thinner layer of skin, composed of E. T.

Dermis: Thicker layer of skin, composed of C.T.

Subcutaneous Layer: Hypodermis, connects to dermis on one side & organs on other

Hypodermis: Subcataneous layer

Lamallated Corpuscles: Nerve endings sensitive to pressure

Keratinocytes: Majority of epi. cells. Produce keratin

Keratin: Protien produced by keratinocytes

Melancytes: Develop frm ectoderm. Produce melanin

Melanin: Givves skin pigment

Langerhans Cells: Ceom frm. Red-bone marrow and move to epi. Immune system responses

Merkel Cells: Contact tactile disc

Tactile Disc: Flattened process of sensory nueron

Thin Skin: Has only the four layers (basale, spinosum, granulosum, & corneum)

Thick Skin: Five layers (basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum & corneum)

Startum Basale: Layer number one of skin

Skin Graft: Healthy skin from a donas

Stratum Spinosum: Layer number two of skin

Stratum Granulosum: Layer number three of skin

Keratohyalin: Protein, convert tonofilaments to keratin

Lamellar Granules: Release lipid-rich secretion

Stratum Lucidum: Optional layer number four

Stratum Corneum: Layer number four/five

Keratinization: Process of cells moving from basale through other layers, picking up karatin

Epidermal Growth Factor: Hormone-like protein

Papillary Region: One region of dermis

Dermal Papillae: Increases surface area of papillary region

Capillary Loops: Blood capillaries

Corpuscles of Touch: Tactile receptors

Free Nerve Endings: Dendrites that lack structural specialization

Reticular Region: One region of dermis

Striae: Stretch marks

Lines of cleavage: Indicate predominant direction of underlying collagen fibers

Epidermal Ridges: Grooves in places as fingers and palms




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The Structural Basis of Skin Color

Melanin, hemogoblin, and carotene=Skin pigments

  • Melanin: skin color from pale to black
    • Pheomelanin (yellow to red) =] Difference is
    • Eumelanin (brown to black) =] in the hair
    • Melanocytes are more in the epi. of penis, nipples of breasts, face, and limbs
    • Difference in skin color caused by pigments the melanocytes produce
    • Synthesied from tyrosine –occurs in melanosome
    • Melanin absorbs UV to protect DNA from being damaged
    • Light skinned people have little melanin, dark skinned people have more
  • Carotine
    • Needed to synthesize for vision
  • Albinism
    • Inherited inability to produce melanin.


Tattooing and Body Piercing

  • Tattooing
    • Needle with foreign pigment is inserted into dermis
  • Body Piercing
    • Insertion of jewelry into an artificial hole


Accessory Structures of the Skin

Hair, skin, glands, and nails

  • Develop from embryonic epidermis

    Hair

Present on most surfaces

  • Hair guards scalp from injury
  • Eyebrows and eyelashes protect eyes
  • Touch receptors associated with hair follicles activated at the slightest touch


Anatomy of a Hair

  • Composer of dead, keratinized cells bonded together by E-C proteins
  • Shaft is the superficial portion which projects from skin
  • Root is the portion of hair deep to the shaft
    • Shaft and root of hair have three concentric layers
      • Medulla, cortex, and cuticle
        • Medulla: composed of two or three rows of irregularly shaped cells
        • Cortex: forms major part of shaft and consists of elongated cells
        • Cuticle: outermost layer, single thin, flat cells
    • Surrounding root is the hair follicle
      • Made of external root sheath and internal root sheath –epithelial root sheath
      • Internal root sheath- produced by the matrix and forms a cellular tubular sheath of epithelium between the external root sheath and the hair


Hair Growth

  • Growth stage
    • Cells of the matrix differentiate, keratinize, and die
    • In time the growth stops and cell enters resting stage





Vocab.

Melanin: Causes skin color to vary from pale yellow to red to tan to black

Nevus (mole): Round flat or raised area that is an overgrowth of melan.

Melanosome: Where the synthesis of melanin occurs

Hemogoblin: O2 carrying pigment in RBC

Carotine: Yellow-orange pigment that gives egg yolk and carrots their color

Albinism: Inherited inability to produce melanin, albinos

Vitiligo: Partial or complete loss of melo. From patches of skin

Shaft: The superficial portion which projects from skin

Root: Portion of hair deep to shaft

Epithelial Root Sheath: Downward continuation of epidermis

Dermal Root Sheath: Dense dermis surrounding the hair follicle

Bulb: Base of each hair follicle

Papilla of the Hair: Nipple shaped indentation in the bulb. Contains areolar CT


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Literature-Close Read Template

AP HONORS LITERATURE

CLOSE READING ANALYSIS


TITLE: _____________ AUTHOR:_______________


SET UP THE CLIP: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


PRESENT THE CLOSE READING:


____________________________________________________

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UNDERTONES: _________________________













Econ -Unit 2- Study Guide


Study Guide for Unit 2




Concepts & Terms




  • Important aspects of the market system: competition, private property, and property rights

    ~Competition: the market system depends on competition to among economic units


    -Freedom of choice exercised in pursuit of a monetary return


    -Freedom of sellers and buyers to enter or leave markets, on the basis of their economic self-interest


    -The diffusion of economic power inherent in competition limit's the potential abuse of that power


    ~Private Property: ex: owning a house, land, etc…


    ~Property Rights: the right of private property, coupled with the freedom to negotiate binding legal contracts, enables individuals and businesses to obtain, use and dispose of property resources as they see fit


    -Encourages investment, innovation, exchange, and economic growth





  • Distribution of Income in the US

    ~Transfer Payments: (ex: welfare checks and food stamps) provide relief to the destitute, and the dependant, the disabled, and older citizens; unemployment compensation payments provide aid to the unemployed


    ~Market Intervention: the government cats to modify the prices that are or would be established by market forces.


    -Provides farmers with above-market prices for their output and requiring that firms pay minimum wages are illustration of government interventions designed to raise the income of specific groups


    ~Taxation: the government uses the personal income tax to take a large proportion of the income of the rich than of the poor, thus narrowing the after-tax income difference between high-income and low-income earners





  • Types of businesses and comparing the amounts of each and the output of each type of business

    ~3 Types:


    -Sole proprietorship: there's one owner


    -Partnership: there's two or more owners


    -Corporation: separate legal entity





  • Government in the circular flow diagram




  • GDP: what is it? What is counted and what isn't? How do you find it? Intermediate and final goods. What counts as investment?

    ~GDP: the total market value of all final goods and services produced in a given year


    ~What's counted as GDP: includes all the goods and services produced by either citizen-supplied or foreign-supplied resources employed within the country


    ~What's NOT counted as GDP: purely financial transactions (ex: public transfer payments, private transfer payments, stock market transaction) and secondhand sales


    ~How you find GDP:


    GDP = Consumption + Government Expenditures + Investment + Imports - Exports


    ~Intermediate Goods: goods and services that are purchased for resale or for further processing or manufacturing


    ~Final Goods: goods and services that are purchased for final use by the consumer, not for resale or for further processing or manufacturing


    ~What counts as Investment:


    -Ex:


    --A family pays a contractor $100,000 for a house he built for them this year


    --At the end of a year, a flour-milling firm finds that its inventories of grain and flour are $10,000 more than its inventories at the beginning of the year


    --Ford Motor Co. buys new auto-making robots


    --Apple Computer Co. builds a new factory in the U.S.





  • What is national Income?

    ~National Income: total income earned by resource suppliers for their contributions to gross domestic product; equal to the gross domestic product minus non-income charges, minus net foreign factor income





  • What is Real GDP?

    ~Real GDP:
    Gross domestic product adjusted for inflation; gross domestic product in a year divided by the GDP price index for that year





  • What is a price index?

    ~Price Index: an index number that shows how the weighted average price of a "market basket" of goods changes over time





  • Business Cycles: What firms are affected most by business cycles? How does each phase of the business cycle affect output?

    ~Firms affected most by business cycles: firms and industries producing capital goods (ex: housing, commercial buildings, heavy equipment and farm implements) and consumer durables (ex: automobiles, personal computers, refrigerators) are affected most by the business cycle


    ~The 4 Phases of the Business Cycle~


    -Peak: business activity has reached a temporary maximum


    --The economy is near or at full employment


    --The level of real output is at or very close to the economy's capacity


    -Recession: a period of decline in total output, income, employment, and trade


    --Lasts 6 months or more


    --Widespread contraction of business activity in many sectors of the economy


    -Trough: in the trough of the recession or depression, output and employment "bottom out" at their lowest levels


    --Can be either short-lived or quite long


    -Recovery: output and employment rise toward full employment


    --Price level may begin to rise before full employment and full-capacity production return





  • Unemployment: The 3 types. The labor force.

    ~3 types of unemployment~


    -Frictional: consists of search unemployment
    and wait unemployment-- for workers who are either searching for jobs or waiting to take jobs in the near future


    --Have salable skills and either live in areas where jobs exist, or are able to move


    -Structural: structurally unemployed workers find it hard to obtain new jobs without retraining, gaining additional education, or relocating


    --Workers whose skills and experience have become obsolete


    -Cyclical (a.k.a. deficient-demand unemployment): caused by a decline in total spending and is likely to occur in the recession phase of the business cycle


    ~The Labor Force~


    -Labor Force: consists of people who are willing and able to work


    --Those who are unemployed but actively seeking work are counted as being in the labor force


    -Not in the Labor Force: people less than 16 years of age, people who are institutionalized, homemakers, full-time students, retirees





  • The GDP gap

    ~When the economy fails to create enough jobs for all who are able and willing to work, potential production of goods and services is irretrievably lost


    -Society is operating at some point inside it's production possibilities curve; this sacrifice of output is called a GDP gap


    -In the case of unemployment above the natural rate, the GDJP gap is negative because actual DGP falls short of potential GDP




    Calculations



  • Calculating GDP



    GDP = Consumption + Government Expenditures + Investment + Imports - Exports





  • Calculating Real GDP



    Real GDP = Nominal GDP X 100


    Price Index





  • Price Index



    Price Index = Nominal GDP X 100


    Real GDP




    Or




    Index = Current X 100


    Base





  • Calculating the unemployment rate



    Unemployment rate = (unemployed) X 100


    (Labor Force)



  • Rate of Inflation

    ~Consumer Price Index (CPI): the main measure of inflation in the U.S.




    CPI = (price of the most recent market basket in the particular year) X 100


    (Price of the same market basket in 1982-1984)




    ~The rate of inflation is found by comparing, in percentage terms, that year's index with the index in the previous year




    Rate of Inflation = (that year's Index - Index of the previous year) X 100


    (Index of the previous year)





  • Real Income



    Real Income = nominal income_____


    price index (in hundredths)




    Percentage Change in Real Income Percentage Change in Nominal Inco




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Art History -Chap 4 - Images

Warrior Vase C. 1300-1100 BC

From Mycenae, Greece. Height 16". Ceramic. There is a narrative on the vase describing a woman saying goodbye to a group of helmeted men. The only sign of the woman's emotion is her arm raised to her head.




Two Women with a Child C. 1400-1200 BC

From palace at Mycenae Greece. Height 2 3/4". Product of Minoan-Mycenae artistic exchange. Observes natural forms in an intricately interlaced position. Carved entirely in the round. Thought to be a generational statue (possibly grandmother, mother, and child) since there are no symbols as to identifying the subjects, but it could easily be two nymphs caring for a child god.


Corbel-Vaulted Casemate C. 1365 BC
From citadel at Tiryns. The citadel built near coast did not have many natural defenses, this was made up for by the strong defenses built into the citadel itself. The fortress had outer (ring) walls that were 20 feet thick, and the inner walls were massive as well. The casemate here provides space for storing arms and sheltering soldiers or townspeople.




Tholos, the so-called Treasury of Athens C. 1300-1200 BC
From Mycenae, Greece. Example of Cyclopean construction because it was thought that only Cyclopes were able to move the massive stones. Walled passageway covering the tomb that led to the entrance was about 20 feet long and 20 feet wide. Original entrance was over 34 feet high and covered with bronze plaques.

Mask of Agamemnon C. 1600-1550

From Mycenae, Greece. Gold. Height 12''. Funerary mask. Found by Shiliemann, he assumed the mask to be that of Homer's hero, Agamemnon, but really, it has nothing to do with the Trojan war. The characteristics that make the mask to gallant are the very same features that make people doubt it's authenticity, such as the handle bar mustache




Lion Gate, Mycenae C. 1250 BC

Height of sculpture 9'6". Limestone relief. Gateway to citadel at Mycenae. Reminder to cities war-like past. Proposed of megaliths. 2 9'' tall lions guardians in triangle forms. Their heads, now missing, were made separately of stone, wood, bronze, or gold.

"Flotilla" Fresco: c. 16050 BCE.

From Room 5 of West House in Akrotiri, Thera, Second Palace period. Painting shows the port of Akrotiri with boats, dolphins, boats, and villages. Akrotiri was destroyed 3,500 years ago from a volcano to form the current island Thera (one of the Cycladic Islands in the southern Aegean Sea).

Two figures of Women: c. 2500-2200 BCE.

From the Cyclades. Made of marble. Height: 13'' and 25''. Shows Cycladic art with pared-down, elegant rendering of the figure. They are also not far removed from the marble slabs. Heads are titled back, arms folded, and toes pointed down to show the figures were intended to lie on their backs as if to be asleep or dead. The anatomical detail as also been kept to a minimum. Statues were originally painted facial features hair, and ornaments in black, red, and blue. Possibly a votive figure.

Seated Harp Player: 3rd millennium BCE.

From Keros, Cyclades. Made of marble. Height 11 1/2''. Fully developed sculpture in the round but similarly simplified like the two women figurines. Best characterized as a musician, particularly a harpist: on a chair, head tilted back as if singing, knees and feet apart for stability, arms raised, bracing instrument with one hand and the other plucking. Possibly a votive figure.


Reconstruction of the palace complex, Knossos: Site occupied 2000-1375 BCE.

From Knossos, Crete. Complex begun in Old Palace period (c. 1900-1700 BCE). Complex was rebuilt after earthquakes and fires during Second Palace period (c. 1700-1450 BCE). Final destruction was in c. 1375 BCE. British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, discovered this areas of the Minoan civilization. Building structures often focused on special landscape features like the sacred Mount Ida. Complex contained a large central courtyard, granaries, storage pits, theater/performance area, independent rooms with eight or nine suites.


Kamares Ware jug: c. 2000-1900 BCE.
From Phaistos. During the Old Palace Period. Made of ceramic. Decorated with brown, red, and creamy white pigments on a black body. Height: 10 5/8. Based on the hallmarks it was thought to be exported as far away as Egypt and Syria. Has a globular body and a "beaked" pouring spout. The jug has rounded contours complemented by bold, curving forms derived from plant life.




Court with staircase reconstructed by Sir Arthur Evans: Leading to the southeast residential quarter, palace complex, Knossos, Crete.

Hall is supported by uniquely Minoan-type wood columns that became standard in Aegean palace architecture. The top of the columns that supported the massive roof beams and a broad flattened capital was wider that the bottom. Was arranged around a central space (rather that along a long axis).

Bull leaping, wall painting with areas of modern reconstruction, from palace complex, Knossos, crete.
Late Minoan period C 1450 – 1375 BCE, about 24 ½" tall. One of the best preserved paintings. May represent initiation of fertility ritual. Shows 3 youthful people with a large bull in the center. The frame is made of overlapping ovals, chariot-wheel motif in between stripped bands.

Octopus flask, palai kastro, crete,
second palace period, C 1500-1450 BCE> marine style ceramic 11" tall. The marine style was when sea life was painted on pottery. Many sea creature surround the octopus, in between his tentacles. Image stylized in harmony with the vessels shape.

Harnester vase-Hagia Triada Crete.

Second palace period, C1650-1450 BCE, steatie, 4 ½" in diameter egg-shaped rhyton originally covered with gold leaf. Carving of 27 rowdy men. Instead of orderly people. The people show movement and show emotion. They are arranged unevenly. It is interpreted as a fall harvest festival, religious procession, crowd of warriors, or gang of forced laborers.

Bull's head rhyton, from palace complex, knosses, crete,

second palace period. C1550-1450 BCE. Steate with shell, rock crystal, red jasper, restored gift wood horns 12" tall. Bulls appear very often in Minoan art. Rhytons were also made in bullform. Bull's horns covered with gold leaf, white shell for nose outline, red jasper for eyes. Used for serving ritual fluid, poured into neck and goes out through the mouth.



Vapheio cup, found near Sparta, Greece,

C. 1650-1450 BCE, gold, 3 ½" tall. One of 2 gold cups found in a large tomb in Vapheio. Relief done in repouss√©, the technique of hammering from the back of the sheet. Handles attached with rivets, lined with a sheet of gold. Depicts different forms of bulls. Maybe sacred scene of a sacred grove.

Citacel, Mycenae, Greece, site occupied

C. 1600 – 1200 BCE, wall built C. 1340, 1250, 1200 BCE. Hilltop position, Lion Gate is in the lower left, near east coast of the Peloponnese peninsula, of the leader of the Greek army that conquered Troy.